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5/5/2009 Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu)
有關豬流行性感冒(豬流感)的關鍵訊息
 

AHII Notes: From 30 April 2009, World Health Organization will refer to the new influenza virus as influenza A(H1N1).

美亞醫訊註:自2009年4月30日起,世界衛生組織將使用甲型H1N1流感作為新流感病毒的名稱。

 
9/10/2007 Causes of death
致死原因
 

The leading causes of death in Asian or Pacific Islander FEMALES in the United States ...

在美國的亞裔或太平洋島民中女性的前列致死原因 ...

 
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Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu)
有關豬流行性感冒(豬流感)的關鍵訊息5/5/2009

Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu)

AHII Notes: From 30 April 2009, World Health Organization will refer to the new influenza virus as influenza A(H1N1).

有關豬流行性感冒(豬流感)的關鍵訊息

美亞醫訊註:自2009年4月30日起,世界衛生組織將使用甲型H1N1流感作為新流感病毒的名稱。

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Swine Flu

What is Swine Influenza?
Swine Influenza (swine flu) is a respiratory disease of pigs caused by type A influenza virus that regularly causes outbreaks of influenza in pigs. Swine flu viruses cause high levels of illness and low death rates in pigs. Swine influenza viruses may circulate among swine throughout the year, but most outbreaks occur during the late fall and winter months similar to outbreaks in humans. The classical swine flu virus (an influenza type A H1N1 virus) was first isolated from a pig in 1930.

豬流感

豬流行性感冒是什麼﹖
豬流行性感冒(豬流感),是一種由甲型流感病毒所引起的豬隻呼吸道疾病,而此病經常導致豬隻流感的爆發。豬流感病毒在豬隻中,會引起高致病率及低死亡率的 疾病。豬流感病毒可以整年在豬隻間傳播,但大多數的爆發會發生在晚秋及冬天;此與人類的爆發相似。典型的豬流感病毒(一種甲型H1N1流感病毒),是在 1930年首次從一頭豬分離出來。

How many swine flu viruses are there?
Like all influenza viruses, swine flu viruses change constantly. Pigs can be infected by avian influenza and human influenza viruses as well as swine influenza viruses. When influenza viruses from different species infect pigs, the viruses can reassort (i.e. swap genes) and new viruses that are a mix of swine, human and/or avian influenza viruses can emerge. Over the years, different variations of swine flu viruses have emerged. At this time, there are four main influenza type A virus subtypes that have been isolated in pigs: H1N1, H1N2, H3N2, and H3N1. However, most of the recently isolated influenza viruses from pigs have been H1N1 viruses.

豬流感病毒有多少﹖
與所有流感病毒相似,豬流感病毒經常改變。 豬隻可以被禽類及人類的流感病毒感染,同樣亦會被豬流感病毒感染。當不同種類的流感病毒感染豬隻時,病毒便會重複混雜(亦即交換基因),而混合了豬、人及 /或禽類流感病毒的新病毒便會出現。多年來,豬流感病毒的不同變異已經出現。目前,從豬隻中分離出來的甲型流感病毒已經有四種主要副型,: H1N1、H1N2、H3N2及H3N1。但大多數最近從豬被分離出來的流感病毒都是H1N1。

Swine Flu in Humans

Can humans catch swine flu?
Swine flu viruses do not normally infect humans. However, sporadic human infections with swine flu have occurred. Most commonly, these cases occur in persons with direct exposure to pigs (e.g. children near pigs at a fair or workers in the swine industry). In addition, there have been documented cases of one person spreading swine flu to others. For example, an outbreak of apparent swine flu infection in pigs in Wisconsin in 1988 resulted in multiple human infections, and, although no community outbreak resulted, there was antibody evidence of virus transmission from the patient to health care workers who had close contact with the patient.

人類豬流感

人類會否感染到豬流感﹖
豬流感病毒通常不會傳染人類。但偶發性的人類豬流感已經出現。最常見的病例,是發生在直接接觸到豬隻的人們(例如,在豬牲口市集附近的孩子,或是豬產業的 工人)。此外亦有文獻記載的病例,就是由一個人將豬流感傳染給其他人。例如,一次明顯的豬流感於1988年在威斯康辛州的豬隻中爆發,引致多人受到感染; 雖然並沒有引起社區爆發,但那是有抗體的證據,證明患者可以將病毒傳播到與他們有緊密接觸的醫護人員。

How common is swine flu infection in humans?
In the past, CDC received reports of approximately one human swine influenza virus infection every one to two years in the U.S., but from December 2005 through February 2009, 12 cases of human infection with swine influenza have been reported.

人類豬流感普遍程度如何?
過去每一至兩年,美國疾病控制及預防中心(疾控中心)都會接到大約一個人類感染豬流感病毒的匯報,但從2005年12月至2009年2月,人類感染豬流感病毒的個案便有12個。

What are the symptoms of swine flu in humans?
The symptoms of swine flu in people are expected to be similar to the symptoms of regular human seasonal influenza and include fever, lethargy, lack of appetite and coughing. Some people with swine flu also have reported runny nose, sore throat, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.

人類豬流感的症狀是什麼﹖
人類豬流感的症狀,預計與一般人類季節性流感症狀相似,包括發燒、慵倦,食慾不振及咳嗽。一些有豬流感的人亦會出現流鼻水、喉嚨痛,噁心,嘔吐和腹瀉。

Can people catch swine flu from eating pork?
No. Swine influenza viruses are not transmitted by food. You cannot get swine influenza from eating pork or pork products. Eating properly handled and cooked pork and pork products is safe. Cooking pork to an internal temperature of 160°F kills the swine flu virus as it does other bacteria and viruses.

進食豬肉會否感染豬流感?
不會。 豬流感病毒不會經食物傳播。 你不可能從進食豬肉或豬肉產品而得到豬流感。而且進食經過適當處理,煮熟的豬肉及豬肉產品是安全的。將豬肉烹煮到內部溫度為華氏160度,去殺死豬流感病毒,就好像去殺死其他細菌和病毒一樣。

How does swine flu spread?
Influenza viruses can be directly transmitted from pigs to people and from people to pigs. Human infection with flu viruses from pigs are most likely to occur when people are in close proximity to infected pigs, such as in pig barns and livestock exhibits housing pigs at fairs. Human-to-human transmission of swine flu can also occur. This is thought to occur in the same way as seasonal flu occurs in people, which is mainly person-to-person transmission through coughing or sneezing of people infected with the influenza virus. People may become infected by touching something with flu viruses on it and then touching their mouth or nose.

豬流感如何傳播﹖
流感病毒是可以直接從豬傳給人及從人傳給豬。人類從豬隻感染的豬流感,極可能是發生在人與受感染的豬在一起時,例如在豬欄及在家畜展覽會展出豬隻時。豬流 感亦可能人傳人的發生,傳染途徑相信是與人類的季節性流感相似,主要是通過有流感病毒的人,咳嗽或打噴嚏而傳給人。接觸有流感病毒的物件後,再接觸自己口 或鼻的人亦可能因而被傳染。

What do we know about human-to-human spread of swine flu?
In September 1988, a previously healthy 32-year-old pregnant woman was hospitalized for pneumonia and died 8 days later. A swine H1N1 flu virus was detected. Four days before getting sick, the patient visited a county fair swine exhibition where there was widespread influenza-like illness among the swine.

In follow-up studies, 76% of swine exhibitors tested had antibody evidence of swine flu infection but no serious illnesses were detected among this group. Additional studies suggest that one to three health care personnel who had contact with the patient developed mild influenza-like illnesses with antibody evidence of swine flu infection.

有關人傳人的豬流感,我們知道什麼?
1988年9月,一名早前健康的32歲孕婦,因為肺炎而入住醫院,并且在8日後死去。一種H1N1豬流感病毒被驗出。患病前四天,病人曽到過展出豬隻的展覽會,而當時豬隻中正廣泛傳播像流感的疾病。
在跟進的研究中, 76%曾參與豬展的人被驗出有感染豬流感的抗體證據,但這群人中沒有被驗出有嚴重的疾病。附加的研究提出,在曽經接觸患輕微類似流感病人的醫護人員中,有一至三名有感染豬流感的抗體證據。

How can human infections with swine influenza be diagnosed?
To diagnose swine influenza A infection, a respiratory specimen would generally need to be collected within the first 4 to 5 days of illness (when an infected person is most likely to be shedding virus). However, some persons, especially children, may shed virus for 10 days or longer. Identification as a swine flu influenza A virus requires sending the specimen to CDC for laboratory testing.

如何診斷人類豬流感﹖
要診斷甲型豬流感,需要在發病初期的4至 5天,從(體內)呼吸道收取樣本(當一個人被感染時,是很可能會傳播病毒)。但有些人,特別是孩子,病毒流出期可能有10天或更長時間。要驗明甲型豬流感病毒,是需要送樣本去疾控中心的化驗室化驗。

What medications are available to treat swine flu infections in humans?
There are four different antiviral drugs that are licensed for use in the US for the treatment of influenza: amantadine, rimantadine, oseltamivir and zanamivir. While most swine influenza viruses have been susceptible to all four drugs, the most recent swine influenza viruses isolated from humans are resistant to amantadine and rimantadine. At this time, CDC recommends the use of oseltamivir or zanamivir for the treatment and/or prevention of infection with swine influenza viruses.

有什麼可用的藥物能治療人類豬流感﹖
在美國有四隻不同的抗病毒藥物,已被註冊用來治療流行性感冒:金剛胺(amantadine)、金剛乙胺 (rimantadine)、奧司他偉 (oseltamivir) 及扎那米偉(zanamivir)。雖然這四隻藥都對大多數豬流感病毒有效,但最近從人類分離出來的豬流感病毒,大多數對金剛胺和金剛乙胺有抗藥性。現 時, 疾控中心推薦用奧司他偉或扎那米偉來治療及/或預防豬流感病毒。

What other examples of swine flu outbreaks are there?
Probably the most well known is an outbreak of swine flu among soldiers in Fort Dix, New Jersey in 1976. The virus caused disease with x-ray evidence of pneumonia in at least 4 soldiers and 1 death; all of these patients had previously been healthy. The virus was transmitted to close contacts in a basic training environment, with limited transmission outside the basic training group. The virus is thought to have circulated for a month and disappeared. The source of the virus, the exact time of its introduction into Fort Dix, and factors limiting its spread and duration are unknown. The Fort Dix outbreak may have been caused by introduction of an animal virus into a stressed human population in close contact in crowded facilities during the winter. The swine influenza A virus collected from a Fort Dix soldier was named A/New Jersey/76 (Hsw1N1).

那裏有其他豬流感爆發的例子?
大概最著名的豬流感爆發是於1976年,在新澤西州 (New Jersey) 迪克斯堡 (Fort Dix) 的軍人中發生。病毒引致至少4名軍人,患有根據X-光顯示的肺炎,和1名軍人死亡;所有這些患者早前都是健康的。病毒在一個基本訓練環境裏,被傳播給有密 切接觸的人,而在基本訓練小組之外的傳播是有限的。相信病毒傳播了一個月便消失。 至於病毒的源頭、傳入迪克斯堡的準確時間、及局限其傳播的因素和時段均不明確。這次迪克斯堡的爆發,可能在冬季期間,由一種動物病毒,傳入一群在擠迫環境 內有密切接觸和有生活壓力的人。 而從一個迪克斯堡軍人收取到的甲型豬流感病毒被命名為甲型/新澤西州/76 (Hsw1N1)。

Is the H1N1 swine flu virus the same as human H1N1 viruses?
No. The H1N1 swine flu viruses are antigenically very different from human H1N1

H1N1豬流感病毒與人類H1N1病毒是否相同﹖
不同。 H1N1豬流感病毒與人類H1N1病毒的抗原有很大分別,所以人類季節性流感的疫苗,不能預防H1N1豬流感病毒。

Swine Flu in Pigs

How does swine flu spread among pigs?
Swine flu viruses are thought to be spread mostly through close contact among pigs and possibly from contaminated objects moving between infected and uninfected pigs. Herds with continuous swine flu infections and herds that are vaccinated against swine flu may have sporadic disease, or may show only mild or no symptoms of infection.

豬隻豬流感

豬流感如何在豬隻間傳播﹖
豬流感病毒,估計主要是通過豬隻間的緊密接觸而被傳播。亦可能經流動的污染物件,在已感染及未感染之豬隻間傳播。持續受感染豬流感的豬群,及接受了抗豬流感疫苗的豬群,都可能有偶發性疾病,或可能出現只是輕微的感染症狀或沒有症狀。

What are signs of swine flu in pigs?
Signs of swine flu in pigs can include sudden onset of fever, depression, coughing (barking), discharge from the nose or eyes, sneezing, breathing difficulties, eye redness or inflammation, and going off feed.

豬隻豬流感病徵是什麼﹖
豬隻的豬流感病徵包括突然發燒、消沈、咳嗽(咆哮)、分泌物從鼻子或眼睛流出、打噴嚏、呼吸困難、眼睛赤紅或發炎、及食慾不振。

How common is swine flu among pigs?
H1N1 and H3N2 swine flu viruses are endemic among pig populations in the United States and something that the industry deals with routinely. Outbreaks among pigs normally occur in colder weather months (late fall and winter) and sometimes with the introduction of new pigs into susceptible herds. Studies have shown that the swine flu H1N1 is common throughout pig populations worldwide, with 25 percent of animals showing antibody evidence of infection. In the U.S. studies have shown that 30 percent of the pig population has antibody evidence of having had H1N1 infection. More specifically, 51 percent of pigs in the north-central U.S. have been shown to have antibody evidence of infection with swine H1N1. Human infections with swine flu H1N1 viruses are rare. There is currently no way to differentiate antibody produced in response to flu vaccination in pigs from antibody made in response to pig infections with swine H1N1 influenza.

While H1N1 swine viruses have been known to circulate among pig populations since at least 1930, H3N2 influenza viruses did not begin circulating among US pigs until 1998. The H3N2 viruses initially were introduced into the pig population from humans. The current swine flu H3N2 viruses are closely related to human H3N2 viruses.

豬隻豬流感如何普遍?
在美國,H1N1和H3N2豬流感病毒,都是豬群中常見的疾病,是一些產業中例行要處理的。豬隻中的爆發,通常發生在較冷的月份(晚秋和冬天),而間中亦 會發生於將新豬隻引入到易受感染的豬群時。研究顯示,H1N1豬流感在全世界的豬群中都是普遍的,25%的動物顯示有抗體,證明曽受感染。在美國研究顯 示, 30%的豬隻有抗體證明曽感染H1N1。較為精確的是在美國的中北部,51%的豬隻有感染H1N1的抗體證據。人類感染H1N1豬流感病毒是罕見的。現在 没法區分的,是豬隻所產生的抗體是對流感疫苗的反應,還是對豬流感H1N1感染的反應。

至少自1930年,H1N1豬病毒便已經被發現在豬群中散播。直到1998年,H3N2流感病毒才開始在美國豬隻間散播。H3N2病毒最初是由人類傳入豬群。現時豬的H3N2流感病毒與人類的H3N2病毒有緊密的關係。

Is there a vaccine for swine flu?
Vaccines are available to be given to pigs to prevent swine influenza. There is no vaccine to protect humans from swine flu. The seasonal influenza vaccine will likely help provide partial protection against swine H3N2, but not swine H1N1 viruses.

有沒有預防豬流感的疫苗?
給豬隻預防豬流感的疫苗是有供應的。目前卻未有預防人類豬流感的疫苗。 季節性流感疫苗可能有助於提供部份對豬H3N2的防禦,但無助於防禦豬H1N1病毒。

Related Links
INFLUENZA: Pigs, People and Public Health (Fact Sheet) 
Links to non-federal organizations are provided solely as a service to our users. These links do not constitute an endorsement of these organizations or their programs by CDC or the federal government, and none should be inferred. CDC is not responsible for the content of the individual organization Web pages found at these links.Page last reviewed: April 24, 2009 17:45 EDT/NLM
Page last updated: April 24, 2009 17:45 EDT/NLM

相關鏈接
流行性感冒:豬,人及公共衛生(概要説明書)
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網頁最後查閲:2009年4月24日下午5時45分美國東部時間/美國國立圖書館
網頁最後更新:2009年4月24日下午5時45分美國東部時間/美國國立圖書館

Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Translation: CultureWise, Inc.
Translation review: Diana Lau, RN, PhDc, CNS
Translation review date: May 4, 2009
Funding: California Healthcare Foundation Discretionary Fund_Justice (ret.) Harry Low
Disclaimer:The information provided here does not imply medical recommendation or endorsement. It does not substitute the advice of your physician. All medical information needs to be carefully reviewed with your health care professional.

資料來源:疾病控制及預防中心
翻譯:智文 CultureWise, Inc.
校對翻譯編輯:Diana Lau, RN, PhDc, CNS
校對翻譯日期:May 4, 2009
經費:加利福尼亞醫療衛生基金會Harry Low(退休法官) 專款審批
聲明: 上述資訊不暗示推薦醫療。它也不代替您醫師的指示。所有醫療保健資訊都需要仔細地與您的醫護人員商討。
 
 
 
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